Suggested Reading for FVI Exam



VOSH History (2002) (Note: Dr.Michel Listenberger is working on a updated comprehensive VOSH History, to be published soon)

VISION 2020: The Right to Sight

25 Questions and Answers on Health and Human RightsWorld Health Organization (2002)

Uncorrected Refractive Error: The Major Cause of Global Visual Impairment, Holden

Potential Lost Productivity resulting from the Global Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error, Smith, Frick, Naido

Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010 a systematic analysis BourneRupert R A Bourne, Gretchen A Stevens, Richard A White, Jennifer L Smith, Seth R Flaxman, Holly Price, Jost B Jonas, Jill Keeff, Janet Leasher, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Serge Resnikoff , Hugh R Taylor, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group

Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status, Rius A, Guisasola L, Sabidó M, Leasher JL, Moriña D, Villalobos A, et al. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2014;36(5):290–9.

Correction of refractive error and presbyopia in Timor-Leste, J Ramke, R du Toit, A Palagyi, G Brian, T Naduvilath

The development of a public optometry system in Mozambique a Cost Benefit AnalysisStephen Thompson, Kovin Naidoo, Geoff Harris, Luigi Bilotto, Jorge Ferrão and James Loughman

Uncorrected Refractive error and presbyopia accommodating the unmet need, RA Bourne

The Prevalence and Risk Indicators of Uncorrected Refractive Need in Latinos: The Los Angeles, Latino Eye Study, Rohit Varma,  Michelle Y. Wang,  Mei Ying-Lai,  Jill Donofrio,  Stanley P. Azen, and  the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group, Doheny Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California

Barriers to use of refractive services in MozambiqueStephen Thompson, Kovin Naidoo, Carmen Gonzalez-Alvarez, Geoff Harris, Farai Chinanayi, and James Loughman

The Impact of Uncorrected Refractive Error on Global Health, Hookway 

The Rationale for Shifting From A Voluntary Clinical Approach To A Public health Approach In Addressing Refractive Errors,Vincent, Pearce, Leasher, Mlandenovich, Patel

What is the Global Burden of Visual Impairment, Dandona (2006)

Refractive Error and Blindness in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State Nigeria, Azonobi (2010)

Internet Websites of Interest



The Fred Hollows Foundation –


Helen Keller International –


International Centre for Eyecare Education –


International Eye Foundation –

Journal of Community Eye Health:  An International Journal to Promote Eye Health Worldwide –


Lions Clubs International Sightfirst –


Operation Eyesight Universal –


Report on Vision Health in Central America –


Surgical Eye Expeditions International –


VISION 2020: The Right to Sight –


VOSH / International –


World Health Organization –