Suggested Reading for FVI Exam


Bringing The World Into Focus: The Story of VOSH (Volunteer Optometric Services to Humanity), Michel Listenberger, OD, FVI (2017)

World Report On Vision, Issued by the World Health Organization, October 2019

Vision Impairment and Blindness, World Health Organization Fact Sheet, Updated October 2017

Universal eye health: A global action plan 2014-2019. World Health Organization

The Rationale for Shifting From A Voluntary Clinical Approach To A Public health Approach In Addressing Refractive Errors, Vincent, Pearce, Leasher, Mlandenovich, Patel (2007)

Potential Lost Productivity resulting from the Global Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error, Smith, Frick, Naido (2009)

Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. Naidoo KS1, Leasher J, Bourne RR, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Limburg H, Pesudovs K, Price H, White RA, Wong TY, Taylor HR, Resnikoff S; Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Mar;93(3):227-3

Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010 a systematic analysis, Rupert R A Bourne, Gretchen A Stevens, Richard A White, Jennifer L Smith, Seth R Flaxman, Holly Price, Jost B Jonas, Jill Keeff, Janet Leasher, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Serge Resnikoff , Hugh R Taylor, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group

Uncorrected Refractive error and presbyopia accommodating the unmet need, RA Bourne

Visual Impairment and Blindness in Adults in the United States: Demographic and Geographic Variations From 2015 to 2050. Varma R, Vajaranant TS, Burkemper B, Wu S, Torres M, Hsu C, Choudhury F, McKean-Cowdin R. (2016)

Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Rupert R A Bourne*, Seth R Flaxman*, Tasanee Braithwaite, Maria V Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Jost B Jonas, Jill Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Serge Resnikoff, Alex Silvester, Gretchen A Stevens, Nina Tahhan, Tien Y Wong, Hugh R Taylor,on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group (2016)

Addressing refractive error visual impairment: volunteer organisations’ alignment with Vision 2020 and public health principles. Pearce MG, Pearch N. Clin Exp Optom 2012; 95: 583–589 (2012)

25 Questions and Answers on Health and Human RightsWorld Health Organization (2002)

Uncorrected Refractive Error: The Major Cause of Global Visual Impairment, Brien Holden (2002)

What is the Global Burden of Visual Impairment, Lalit Dandona (2006)

Internet Websites of Interest

Brien Holden Vision Institute –

EYElliance –

Helen Keller International –

International Centre for Eyecare Education –

 International Eye Foundation –

 Lions Clubs International Foundation –

Surgical Eye Expeditions International –

 VISION 2020: The Right to Sight –

Vision Impact Institute –

VOSH / International –

World Council of Optometry –

World Health Organization –

Updated COVID-19 and VOSH Humanitarian Clinics Advice

Due to an unprecedented surge in COVID-19 infections, a new variant that is more contagious, and these being early days in the vaccination distribution, VOSH/International DOES NOT recommend that chapters participate in domestic or international eye and vision clinics at this time.

We reiterate that at a time when the coronavirus continues to spread quickly in many parts of the world and vaccinations are not yet available to local populations, the risk of close contact with patients in a crowded outpatient environment remains high.

If a VOSH Chapter or VOSH volunteer chooses to hold a clinic against our best guidance, this is done at your own risk, by your own decision and should be in line with current local/national government rules.  VOSH/International would like to reiterate that safety for VOSH volunteers and our patients is of utmost importance and central to any decision-making process.

We have published our updated clinic guidelines with best practices to be observed in this new context.  You can download VOSH/International clinic guidelines here

Also please keep checking the following sites with official and most recent updates:

World Health Organisation:


US Government Travel Advise:

Thank you for your patience in these unprecedented times, hard work and dedication to improving vision and eye health throughout the world.

John Daniel Twelker, OD, PhD, FAAO, FVI

President, VOSH/International

January 2021