Suggested Reading for FVI Exam


Bringing The World Into Focus: The Story of VOSH (Volunteer Optometric Services to Humanity), Michel Listenberger, OD, FVI (2017)

World Report On Vision, Issued by the World Health Organization, October 2019

Vision Impairment and Blindness, World Health Organization Fact Sheet, Updated October 2017

Universal eye health: A global action plan 2014-2019. World Health Organization

The Rationale for Shifting From A Voluntary Clinical Approach To A Public health Approach In Addressing Refractive Errors, Vincent, Pearce, Leasher, Mlandenovich, Patel (2007)

Potential Lost Productivity resulting from the Global Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error, Smith, Frick, Naido (2009)

Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. Naidoo KS1, Leasher J, Bourne RR, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Limburg H, Pesudovs K, Price H, White RA, Wong TY, Taylor HR, Resnikoff S; Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. Optom Vis Sci. 2016 Mar;93(3):227-3

Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010 a systematic analysis, Rupert R A Bourne, Gretchen A Stevens, Richard A White, Jennifer L Smith, Seth R Flaxman, Holly Price, Jost B Jonas, Jill Keeff, Janet Leasher, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Serge Resnikoff , Hugh R Taylor, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group

Uncorrected Refractive error and presbyopia accommodating the unmet need, RA Bourne

Visual Impairment and Blindness in Adults in the United States: Demographic and Geographic Variations From 2015 to 2050. Varma R, Vajaranant TS, Burkemper B, Wu S, Torres M, Hsu C, Choudhury F, McKean-Cowdin R. (2016)

Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Rupert R A Bourne*, Seth R Flaxman*, Tasanee Braithwaite, Maria V Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Jost B Jonas, Jill Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Serge Resnikoff, Alex Silvester, Gretchen A Stevens, Nina Tahhan, Tien Y Wong, Hugh R Taylor,on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group (2016)

Addressing refractive error visual impairment: volunteer organisations’ alignment with Vision 2020 and public health principles. Pearce MG, Pearch N. Clin Exp Optom 2012; 95: 583–589 (2012)

25 Questions and Answers on Health and Human RightsWorld Health Organization (2002)

Uncorrected Refractive Error: The Major Cause of Global Visual Impairment, Brien Holden (2002)

What is the Global Burden of Visual Impairment, Lalit Dandona (2006)

Internet Websites of Interest

Brien Holden Vision Institute –

EYElliance –

Helen Keller International –

International Centre for Eyecare Education –

 International Eye Foundation –

 Lions Clubs International Foundation –

Surgical Eye Expeditions International –

 VISION 2020: The Right to Sight –

Vision Impact Institute –

VOSH / International –

World Council of Optometry –

World Health Organization –

Updated COVID-19 and VOSH Humanitarian Clinics Advice

VOSH/International recently consulted its US and International Chapters about the feasibility and timing to restart our humanitarian clinics. While the vaccination process continues with different levels of success depending on availability and acceptance, it is evident that vaccine inequity and the availability and reliability of data in several countries are issues we need to consider.

Even if already vaccinated and boosted, our chapters are still concerned about the wellbeing of our volunteers and patients.  Some chapters, are organizing clinics locally where they are better able to comply with the existing safety requirements and respective state/country regulations.

The COVID-19 pandemic and its variants are being experienced quite differently depending on state, region, country, vaccine availability, vaccine acceptance, and the spread of SARS-COV-2 variants. Most VOSH chapters are not holding clinics or traveling internationally in 2021 or 2022.

If a VOSH Chapter choses to hold a clinic or travel internationally, we highly recommend that the chapter performs due diligence to comply fully with the requirements established by the visited country, ensures all VOSH volunteers are aware of and follow strict safety guidelines and all existing protocols and regulations of the country, and keeps the principle of “do no harm” embedded in all its decision making. As always, the wellbeing and safety for VOSH volunteers and our patients is of utmost importance and central to any decision-making process. We have published our updated clinic guidelines with best practices to be observed in this new context. VOSH chapters in specific countries are using protocols that need to be considered as well. You can download VOSH/International clinic guidelines here.

*VOSH/International is formed by autonomous US and international chapters that are fully and only responsible for their activities, fundraising and decision-making.  VOSH/International can only provide recommendations based on our best knowledge and information at the time.

Also please keep checking the following sites with official and most recent updates:

World Health Organization:


US Government Travel Advise:

Thank you for your hard work and dedication to improving vision and eye health throughout the world.

Michael Ciszek, OD, dipl ABO, FVI

President, VOSH/International

December 2021